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ACT考前必看:写作注意的三个问题

2017-04-07 10:28

来源:新东方北京学校

作者:史新竹

  >>>点击查看ACT考试2016盘点及备考规划

  改革后的ACT写作比之前难度有所增加,考试的平均分也有所下降。

  本文主要分析了以下三个主要问题:

  主体段缺乏互斥性;

  分论点展开不充分,

  解读观点时流于表面,缺少较深刻的分析。

  第一、主体段的互斥性

  每个主体段应该分别从不同的角度对话题进行展开,这样才是条理清晰的结构。如果body1的例子同样可以用来支持body2的观点,让步段的反驳又回到了body1,就出现了主体段之间的overlap,说明考生不能organize ideas logically。

  要实现主体段的互斥性首先需要注意每个段的关键词(关键词反映了该段的中心思想),上一段的关键词不能重复出现在下一段。以Tech-free Time为例:

  P1 Tech denies us as modern people.

  P2 Restore true selves, appreciate real world

  P3 Either because people need tech to work and communicate or because they are addicted, they cannot stay away.

  以支持tech-free time为例,很多学生写P1主体段的段落大意是Although technologies make our lives convenient, they lead to people’s addition to technology。这样就出现了P1主体段和P3主体段在addition方面重叠,导致文章结构逻辑混乱。由此可以看出每个段的关键词不能重复。P1的展开应该改成Although technologies make our lives convenient, they exert many negative effects on our health。

  第二、充分展开分论点

  主体段的分论点已经确定了,接下来是通过reasoning(说理)或者example(举例)进行展开。

  Reasoning就是用概括性的语言讲道理,回答为什么。绝大多数中国学生在reasoning方面比较薄弱,一方面ACT写作的话题我们不熟悉,另一方面学校的辩证思维训练很少。即便如此,通过写作课的讲解和强化训练,同学们的reasoning能力会有所提高。Reasoning的关键在于必须有逻辑链条,而大多数学生的问题往往是单一的内容绕来绕去、一团乱麻。以Intelligent Machines的P1为例(P1: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people.),比较以下两个版本:

  Version One:Over dependence on intelligent machines makes people lose humanity. If there are too many machines in our life, people’s social skills will get week. They do not have as many face-to-face talks as before. They would not know how to communicate with others, and they may easily offend others. Thus, they do not know how to respect people. Although digital devices, phones and computers, make our communication much more convenient, face-to-face communication is different from chatting via the Internet. People may tell all kinds of lies on the Internet.

  Version TwoOur careless use of automation has already taken a toll on our culture. People have been interacting with automation in nearly every aspect of their lives, whether it be shopping, banking, or the use of a telephone. The effect of this is obvious: basic respect for our fellow man is all but absent today because of increased interaction with automation. Why treat a machine with kindness? It suffers no emotional or psychological damage. In a culture saturated with automation, we get used to treating machines rudely, and we begin to treat each other rudely. This of course leads to all sorts of issues, like intolerance and incivility, and in the long run, results in the complete degradation of culture.

  第一个版本的逻辑非常混乱,各种短句把句间逻辑分割开了。第二个版本有清晰的逻辑链:因为机器没有情感所以人们对机器很粗鲁,这种粗鲁会随着机器在生活中的普及而固化成习惯,这样人们对待彼此也会粗鲁,从而对导致loss of humanity。

  写reasoning之前必须打草稿,整理出一个清晰的逻辑链,然后再用完整的句子表达出来,组成段落。

  Example相对简单,但是很多学生在举例时也会出问题。即使找到了合适的例子,但例子的细节却把握不好,会出现跟分论点无关的细节信息。以Mastery的P1为例(P1: Dedication to a goal gives purpose and order to life. The determination and persistence required for mastery shape us into strong people and are rewards in themselves.),比较以下两个版本:

  Version oneMastering a particular skill shapes people to be tough and strong. If one does not practice to master a skill, he will be accustomed to a relaxing state of mind and eventually lose the ability to fulfill a demanding task in the future. On the contrary, mastering a skill makes one strong. Take the example of Nicholas James Vujicic, a motivational speaker. He was born without all four limbs and was laughed at by classmates and neighbors. But on day, he got inspired by a handicapped man in a newspaper who struggled to make the best out of his life. From that day on, he started to practice sports and take care of his daily activities, such as brushing teeth and driving a car. He also delivered speeches to inspire millions of people, and found a NPO to help misfortunate people. Eventually, he got fame and be respected by the entire world.

  Version TwoThe fortitude and perseverance committed to a goal toughen one’s mind and shape one’s character. A relaxing state of mind would reinforce our indolence dwelling in all of us; without challenging one to boost his potentials, he will have no motivation to improve himself and become better. Instead, a determined mind of gaining the proficiency of a skill would lesson one to be tough and strong. Take the example of Nicholas James Vujicic, a motivational speaker. Before he resolved to transcend his physical disorder of having no limbs, he was vulnerable to derision and criticism from others so that he attempted several suicides in his childhood. Since he started to practice for mundane activities and speeches, he was stimulated to be optimistic and resolute and eventually transformed to be a respected speaker worldwide.

  两个版本使用了同一个例子,但是第一个例子不合格,没有根据Topic sentence的关键词”mastering a skill”, “tough and strong”进行展开。”mastering a skill”本该具体展开却被最简化了,也没有细节说明”tough and strong”。而无关的信息却被详写了,如”he got inspired by...”, “found a NPO...”等。而第二个例子根据topic sentence进行了有针对性地展开。

  所以,topic sentence的关键词对于例子的展开也是至关重要的,跟关键词相关的细节要重点展开,无关的信息要毫不犹豫的舍弃。

  第三、解读观点要深入

  Perspective的解读不唯一,各种解读虽没有对错之分,却有深浅之别。有些学生只是进行表面的解读,缺乏结合现实进行深入分析。以Latest and Greatest的P2为例(Our great desire for the “latest and greatest” represents a dangerous cultural mindset: everything is disposable; little is cherished or made to last.):

  很多学生会直接翻译”everything is disposable”,从而解读成pursuing new things makes people get rid of the old products,然后以iPhone为例说明苹果不断推出新版本的手机,旧手机还没有坏就被丢掉了。

  其实,结合之前学过的Creativity的P1(Many newly created things today defy tradition and ignore history. )这个观点可以转化成“求新与传统的关系”,这样的解读更为深刻。

  临考要如何复习呢?1. 复习学过的题型思路和例子。同一题型的题目会反复出现,考试出相似的题目,认真复习的学生会有明显优势。

  2. 复习自己练习的作文。整理自己的例子,做好例子储备。

  3. 分析范文。了解更多的文章结构和思路,写作基础好的学生尤其要注意分析范文。

  4. 考前限时练习。把握时间分配,熟悉手感。

  相关推荐:

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